THEORY AND PRACTICE OF TEACHING UKRAINIAN AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE
Anthology of Scholarly Articles
Lviv – 2008
². ORGANIZING THE PROCESS OF TEACHING UKRAINIAN
TO A FOREIGN AUDIENCE
The study and comprehension process has to be a rewarding and enjoyable experience. This whole process requires that the incentives to learn and study must work in the educational context. Does the modern Ukrainian society hold having a good knowledge of the state language as socially prestigious, imparting communicative and emotive motives to it? Are professional and utilitarian motives encouraging enough? What governs this article is the concern about the present state and prospects of the state language learning and mastering.
Key words: motivation, state language, native language, social status, phatic and hedonistic functions of the language, language nihilism, communicative rationality.
The article examines new approaches to teaching Ukrainian as a foreign language, which are based on different types of speaking activity. On the basis of considering the ommunicative aspect as a priority, creative, cognitive and interactive methods are examined, as well as including role plays, linguistic games, situational exercises and tasks into the education process.
Key words: methodology, Ukrainian as a foreign language.
This article investigates the undertaking of creating a basic Ukrainian language study program for foreign students of higher institutions. As the education system changes, so do the priorities of such a program. The educational program is the most important constituting part of the educational system. This article analyzes the methodological foundations for the creation of educational programs, which need to be based on the current needs of the international community.
Key words: system of education, educational program, Bolonskiy process, speciality centrism, inter-subject coordination.
The author analyzes the activity of native and foreign scholars who deal with teaching Ukrainian as a foreign language both in Ukraine and abroad. The article highlights the importance of the exchange of lingo-didactic experience in order to advance the integration of the Ukrainian language and culture into the international communicative space.
Key words: Ukrainian studies, lingo-didactics, linguistic competence, language and communicative competence, ethnically native language, foreign teachers of Ukrainian, methodological provisions for the teaching process.
This article examines the preparation and compiling of a textbook on Ukrainian as a foreign language for beginners. Attention is focused on selecting lexical and grammatical material from the perspective of the communicative aspect of learning the language. Special exercises are provided that can be used as examples for preparing lessons.
Key words: lexical minimum, grammar minimum, communicative aspect, selecting of lexical
material, combining verbs.
The article dwells upon the basic principles of compiling a Ukrainian language textbook for foreign students, in which language competence formation is accomplished through solving language and communicative tasks.
Key words: communicative, complex, individually oriented, formation, generalized, methods,
communication, structural approach.
This article focuses on the peculiarities of teaching Ukrainian in Poland. It analyzes the infl uence of both the political situation and status of the Ukrainian language in Ukraine on the unique enterprise of increasing the number of centers for Ukrainian studies abroad.
Key words: Ukrainian as a foreign language, specifi c of teaching, text-books, dictionaries,
This article makes an analysis of the phonetic, lexical and grammatical diffi culties that arise at the initial stage of learning Ukrainian. Analysis is based on the experience of a Polish-speaking student. The author indicates reasons why Poles are inclined to use incorrect linguistic constructions, and proposes methods for overcoming these erroneous tendencies.
Key words: language mistake, Polish audience, language interference.
This lecture is devoted to the illumination of basic problems that touch the study of Ukrainian in schools with instruction in Polish. Teaching language in this type of schools has its own specifi c charactersitics. In the school cycle Ukrainian is studied as the state language. The course of studies envisions a much smaller amount of hours than that necessary for mastering the complete specter of linguistic and verbal competencies, which are essential for passing the external independent examination (“ZNO”). The proper level of mastering Ukrainian requires specialists with a very high level of professional preparation in teaching Ukrainian as a foreign language, collaboration in this matter with teachers, practical workers and research workers, the continuous exploration of new educational technologies, and the exchange of experience in solving these problems.
Key words: Ukrainian as a state language, bilingualism, comparative grammar of Ukrainian and Polish, closely related languages, Ukrainian-language surroundings, transposing, interference.
The main way of assessing acquired knowledge during the process of distance learning is using tests. The successful selection of lexical material and its correct use in a distance education course of Ukrainian as a foreign language allows for the increase of the foreign student’s vocabulary and the formation of his or her lexical skills and abilities.
Key words: distance language learning, test, lexical competence.
In Germany the number of Ukrainian language learners is infi nitesimally small. One of the
main causes of this situation is the lack of information about Ukraine, its language and culture in German society. There exists no scientifi c discourse concerning the teaching of Ukrainian as a foreign language. As a result, recently published teaching materials do not take into account modern demands for teaching materials as well as the studying and teaching of foreign languages.
Key words: Ukrainian as a foreign language, textbooks, communicative methods for learning a
This article examines the problems of studying Ukrainian as a foreign language in a bilingual setting as well as matters related to overcoming the problem.
Key words: linguistic context, language-related problems, related languages, Ukrainian as the main language, Ukrainian as a second foreign language.
This article gives a short overview of the ways that multimedia can be used for learning languages in various countries. Attention is focused on didactic foundations in the use of Internet technology during the educational process. The article provides a list of Internet sites useful for studying Ukrainian as well as a description of their contents.
Key words: multimedia, studying languages, distance learning.
This article reviews a variety of examining technologies for testing the level of communicative competence in Ukrainian as a foreign language. Tests are identifi ed that measure oral and written linguistic skills.
Key words: Interview, role-play, scenario, simulation, dictation, close test, summarizing.
The article based on the results of researches of linguists and psychologists deals with the nature of comprehension of foreign language in different age groups. Main attention is paid to the specifi cs of thinking and memory.
Key words: learning foreign language, teaching kids, pupils and adults chinking, memory, attention aural and visual irritant, left and right hemispheres of train, lateralization.
²². LINGUISTIC AND COUNTRY STUDIES AND PROBLEMS
OF INTER-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION IN UKRAINIAN AS A FOREIGN
The article researches the problem of defi ning differential features of the notion native language as opposed to a number of other notions. The author specifi es main functions of native language in society and the life of each person.
Key words: natural language, native language, non-native language, functions of language.
This article examines theoretical approaches in determining aims for teaching Ukrainian as foreign language as well as principles for selecting and structuring the contents of teaching verbal and written communicative-expedient speech in the creation of an electronic textbook.
Key words: Ukrainian as a foreign language, informative-communicative technologies, programmatic-pedagogical facilities, electronic textbook, lingo-didactic, communicative, functionalstylistic, professionally oriented approaches, linguistic didactic model.
Every year foreign citizens from countries in the Middle East, the Far East, Africa, and Asia travel to Ukraine to study at various Ukrainian institutions of higher education. These students were born and raised in societies that differ from European societies in their habits, traditions, laws, worldview, and religious confession. As a result, when they arrive in the Ukrainian surrounding these students have problems of not only a linguistic but also a psychological character. The process of socio-cultural adaptation requires both educational and nurturing activities not only on the preparatory educational level but also throughout the whole period of the foreign student’s stay in Ukraine.
Key words: Ukrainian as a foreign language, country studies, socio-cultural adaptation.
The names of sacral edifi ces are an integral part of Ukrainian ethnological vocabulary. The chosen designation of cathedrals and churches, which have national-cultural character are of special interest to linguists in the sphere of linguistic country studies. The history of religion, the characteristics of the territory, and national traditions all play an important role in the creation of the names of sacral edifi ces.
Key words: Christianity, names of sacral edifi ces, toponyms, anthroponomy.
In this article the author has investigated cognate terms of the second generation in a direct family relationship – grandfather, grandmother, granddaughter, and grandson. The author reveals the lexical meaning of these names, their etymology, and indicates their ability to create diminutives and other derivative forms, various phraseologies, as well as compound terms and their meaning. The article demonstrates how these terms are used in different genres of verbal folk traditions as well as literature.
Key words: ethno-linguistics, cognation, names of in-law relatives, grandfather, grandmother, granddaughter, grandson.
This article analyzes the ethno-psychological idiosyncracies of Arab students and their manifestation in the educational process while in the preparatory department for foreigners. This includes the identifi cation of socio-cultural differences in the individual’s relation to family, the necessity of taking into account other persons during interpersonal communication, and, in particular, the communicative idiosyncrasies of female students with their teachers, etc. The manifestation of distinctive in learning among representatives of eastern and western Arab countries is identify ed, and it is shown that the effectiveness of the pedagogical process depends on the professional competence of the teacher who fi rst of all takes the ethno-psychological distinctives of Arab students into account
Key words: ethno psychology, ethno pedagogy, cross-cultural communication.
The linguistic and country studies of wedding phraseology are a potential source of information about a culture’s worldview and the spiritual life of its adherents. This article analyzes unique wedding phrase logical units that function within the limits of the Boyko continuum and that have linguistic and cultural value, representing ethno-cultural connotation.
Key words: unique ceremonial phrases, cultural specifi cs of phraseology, connotative component, Boyko sayings.
The article contains the study on the history of the appearance and usage of the words êàâàðíÿ and êàâ’ÿðíÿ. The author worked numerous newspaper and belles-lettres texts up and ascertained that the noun êàâàðíÿ appeared as an Ukrainian equivalent to the Polonism êàâ’ÿðíÿ near the 90th of the XIX century. The new word became usual very quickly all over the Ukraine, have got a few derivates and was fi xed in several dictionaries in the 20th – 40th of the XX century. The semantic variations and the modern connotation of the vocable êàâàðíÿ are also analysed in the article.
Key words: linguistic and country knowledges, derivate, equivalent, Polonism, connotation, semantics, concept.
This article analyzes the different perspectives of Ukrainian and foreign research on the concept sphere of sacral. Differential characteristics of the explored concept sphere are discovered, and its structure and specifi city are traced.
Key words: concept, concept sphere, sacral, core and periphery of the concept sphere.
This article studies the peculiarities of addressing someone as „òè” or „Âè” in Ukrainian. Nouns used to address other people in offi cial, unoffi cial and neutral situations are identifi ed. It is demonstrated how people in conversations about respected people use the third person plural form instead of the third person singular.
Key words: address (someone), regulating words, honorary forms of address.
III. THE METHODOLOGY OF TEACHING THE PHONETICS,
LEXICA AND ORTHOGRAPHY OF UKRAINIAN AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE
Comparative-contrastive analysis in teaching a foreign language is one of the main teaching principles and conditions for success in the learning process. This article is dedicated to the application of the comparative-contrastive analysis in teaching a foreign language on the individual level, and also in considering categories and aspects in foreign language learning. A linguistic analysis of the teaching material should be foundational to the process of teaching a foreign language. Acquiring a foreign language encompasses its phonetic, grammatical and lexical aspects at the level of form and contents.
Key words: Principle of consciousness, comparative-contrastive analysis, process of communication, language unit, automatization of skills.
This article investigates the uniqueness of using discourse words in Ukrainian and Russian through the prism of interference. The material studies how discourse words perform the role of text coherence. The special function of discourse words is to express national and linguistic peculiarity. This has caused a lot of problems in the course of translation.
Key words: connective phrases, discourse words, national and linguistic peculiarity.
This article is dedicated to the actual problem of the selection of methods and approaches to teaching Ukrainian to foreign students. The importance of effectively combining modern conceptual methods and approaches to teaching Ukrainian as a foreign language is examined.
Key words: the process of studying, language, speech, types of verbal activity, methodological approaches, methodological approaches.
This article examines the methodical application of poetic texts as teaching material for phonetics and written characteristics while studying Ukrainian as a foreign language and as aesthetic characteristics of a culture.
Key words: phonetics, orthoepy (pronunciation), graphics, didactics, alphabet, sounds, letters.
In the process of this research, 53 arch lexons – general notions that report basic semantics for more than 8066 lexico-semantic variants of the verbs of motion – were determined. The research results can be used in some fi elds of linguistic theory and practice: in forming of meta-language for automatic semantic analysis and synthesis; in creation of short explanatory dictionaries; and in writing textbooks for studying Ukrainian as a foreign language.
Key words: arch lexons, ideographic dictionary, verbs of motion.
In the article, the major challenges arising in the process of learning Ukrainian scientifi c and technological terminology by the foreign student are analyzed, and possible ways of overcoming these challenges are outlined. In particular, a methodology for the acquisition of terminology is proposed through the system of learning international terminology elements. Problems associated with terminological metaphorization are pointed out.
Key words: terminological lexica, term meaning, systemic learning of terminological lexica, international terminological element, terminological metaphorization, term motivation, systemic nature of terminology.
In the article the author analyzes Ukrainian and Spanish phraseology with the components of soul/ alma and heart/ corazón that are used to denote emotions. The study identifi es the semantic and structural features of the phraseology units of both languages, and also marks some features of the worldview of the nations that are reproduced in language and form a fragment of the linguistic picture of the world.
Key words: phraseologic unit, emotions, national-linguistic picture of the world, Ukrainian language, Spanish language.
The article deals with the analysis of the somatic vocabulary from a linguistic didactic aspect.
Key words: somatism, the somatic code of the culture, the original nominations.
This article describes one topic group of Ukrainian vocabulary – astronomical names. These words refl ect the spiritual life and culture of the Ukrainian people and provide a sense of the particular character of the fi eld of Ukrainian speech. Getting acquainted with Ukrainian astronomic names allows foreigners to become acquainted with a section of the language picture of the world of Ukrainians.
Key words: astronomer (cosmologist), astronomic terms, national cultural potential of astronomic names, Ukrainian astronomic names and astronomic objects.
This report is about the problem of ukrainian-turkish homonymy in the teaching ukrainian language as a foreign in the turkish audience. Our researching shows there are 89 homonymic pair, which makes some problems in the learning Ukrainian language because of making phenomena of lexical interference. We propose formal classifi cation of ukrainian-turkish homonyms and demonstrate some methods and types of lexical exercises for overcoming this problem.
Key words: interlingua homonymy, „false translator’s friends”, turkish words homonyms, unrelated languages, linguistic shock.
²V. THE METHODOLOGY OF TEACHING THE GRAMMAR AND
STYLISTICS OF UKRAINIAN AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE.
THE ROLE OF WRITTEN TEXTS IN LEARNING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE
In additional to communicative, a fi ctional text also has aesthetic communicative features. It enables a teacher to involve students in creative activities and to form almost all subsets of communicative competence such as linguistic, professional, sociolingo-cultural, formal-logical and paralinguistic. The communicative strategy is a signifi cant tool for providing communicative skills which are developed as the student’s creative potential is taken into account.
Key words: fi ctional text, communicative competence, communicative strategy, and creativity.
This article studies the criteria for dividing the Ukrainian verb into conjugation categories while taking into account the particulars of studying them in the foreign language context. Five basic types of verb paradigms are identifi ed. The specifi cs of morphological and accent changes that accompany the formation of the present and simple future tenses are indicated.
Key words: Ukrainian as a foreign language, verb, personal paradigm, paradigm group.
This article presents the analysis of pragmatic peculiarities of masculine and feminine genders as the means of expressing negative appraisal in confl ict discourse.
Key words: appraisal (evaluation), grammatical form, communication, connotation, confrontational speech genres, Ukrainian language.
This article deals with the principles of studying infi nitive phrases, paying attention to the importance of working through them with a foreign audience and the formation of students’ communicative-stylistic capability.
Key words: syntax, stylistics, different kinds of syntactical rules, infi nitive clause.
The article develops a contrastive analysis of verbal prefi xes in Ukrainian and French. Word derivation by means of prefi xes is not very productive in French, so it requires etymological analysis involving Latin. A table of semantic equivalents of Ukrainian, French and Latin prefi xes and prepositions is provided in the article, and the idea of a prefi x derivative tree is proposed.
Key words: prefi x, the grammatical meaning of prefi xes, prefi x paradigm, prefi x derivative tree, preposition, semantic meaning of prefi xes.
The article defi nes the role of tables in learning Ukrainian as a foreign language and presents a number of grammatical schemes for mastering the following topics: “The Noun,” “The Possessive Pronouns,” “The Adjective,” “The Verb.” The article offers systematic recommendations concerning the application of such tables.
Key words: a table, scheme, grammatical acquaintance, a word, a lexeme, a grammatical form.
This article deals with particular lexical, stylistic, and grammatical distinctives of the pronoun that distinguish it from other language blocks, identifying diffi culties for foreign students while studying Ukrainian.
Key words: pronoun, stylistic particulars, practical grammar.
The Ukrainian and Chinese languages have many similarities and differences in meaning, composition and use of numerals. The article identifi es instances that are particularly problematic for Chinese students in studying Ukrainian.
Key words: numeral, the Chinese and Ukrainian languages, similarities and differences.
The article treats the problem of the place and usefulness of national culture texts as an integral part of teaching materials in the process of acquiring reading and oral comprehension skills of Ukrainian as a foreign language.
Key words: speech activity, reading, audio aspects, cultural logical text, system of exercises.
V. THE FORMATION OF COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE IN THE
PROCESS OF STUDYING UKRAINIAN AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE
This article presents the concept of the law of confi dence in understood statements/ phrases as a factor in the individual’s formation of communicative competence. The study is based on an analysis of basic national expressions (proverbs?) of different nations of the world, thereby illustrating this law of communication.
Key words: intercultural communication, communicative law, competence, communicative reference, individuality of a language, proverb, absolute truth, normative value system.
This article reveals and classifi es the main approaches (techniques) for teaching speech that can be applied in the teaching process with the goal of forming verbal skills. It takes into account the infl uence of non-linguistic factors (the conditions of communication) that affect the choice of linguistic stimulus while studying a foreign language.
Key words: Kinds of linguistic activity, speech/ speaking, teaching techniques (methods), linguistic stimulus.
The article outlines the main problems of the usage of non-verbal means of communication by international students. Scientifi c researches of non-verbal means of communication in the fi eld of psychology, psycholinguistics, ethno-linguistics, linguistics, semiotics, and methods of teaching Ukrainian as a foreign language are analyzed.
Key words: communication, language, culture, non-verbal means of communication.
This article is about the problems of the formation and development of foreign students’ dialogue speech during the fi rst period of studying. It analyzes the students’ skill to ask questions and answer, perceive and produce dialogues.
Key words: dialogue, dialogue speech, dialogue unity, question structures, communicative situation.
This article describes the verbal representation of the concept “Vodokhreshche.” It assumes including information about the analyzed fragment of the conceptual person from the encyclopedic, etymological, cultural, explanatory and church dictionaries (the cultural aspect) and the defi nition of the peculiarities of its representation in language (the semantic aspect).
Key words: concept, religious map of the world, componential analysis, archisema, ethnographic synonyms.
This article considers country studies in teaching foreign students Ukrainian in the preparatory department as well as the role of communicative culture in the effective studying of.
Key words: linguistic methodical research, communicative culture, motivational pragmatic level, combined studying, linguistic regional geography.
This article analyses the genre of making requests including the lingual contents, possible variations, and the particularities of studying this as a foreign language audience.
Key words: Expression or saying, verbal speech, genres of speech, request, intention, verbs with the semantics of the main action.
Genre of the phrasebook occupies a special place in the process of foreign space mastering. Typical models of communication, which allow a foreign speaker to manoeuvre in communication dimension of a language being mastered by him/ her, are represented
Key words: phrasebook, vocabulary-phrasebook, communication, comment (lingual, lingual area studies, area studies).